Installing ESXi onto a Cisco WAVE 594 WAN Optimisation Appliance

Saturday, 09 Feb 2019

Installing ESXi on a Cisco Wide Area Virtualisation Engine Appliance

Why would you want to do this? No real reason, but we've been decommissioning some hardware, and it's pretty clear that Cisco WAVE Appliances are just a Compute Server, with some stuff like VGA Ports removed. Originally these Appliances were designed for CDN-like WanOp purposes, so they have extras like Cavium Crypto/Offload Cards onboard, and some SATA storage; so I thought I'd have a go at loading VMware ESXi Hypervisor onto them.

The box I have is a Cisco WAVE 594, with specifications as follows:

  • Processor - Intel Xeon X3430 @ 2.4 GHz
  • Memory - 8 GB DDR3 RAM
  • Storage - 2x Hot-pluggable 500 GB SATA 7.2k Hard Drives
  • Storage - 1x Internal 4 GB USB Flash Disk
  • Network* - 2x Intel 82574L 1 GbE Network Ports

* = Not detected by ESXi, even though they're on the VMware Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)

What have we got here, Captain?

Here's a few photos of what we've got to work with:



Inside, you'll notice an internal USB port, plugged into a 4 GB USB Flash Drive (by some company I've never heard of); outside, you'll notice I've plugged in a USB 3 Ethernet Adapter (that uses the Realtek RTL8152 Chipset).

Port-wise, all we have to play with is:

  • 1x External USB Port
  • 1x micro-USB Console Port
  • 1x RJ45 Console Port (Serial Port)
  • 2x RJ45 1 Gbps Network Ports

What you don't have is a VGA Port, or spare USB Port to plug a Keyboard into (as well as a USB Flash Disk for the ESXi HV/OS Volume), which will make it pretty hard to process the Next/Next/F11 sequence required to install ESXi.

Time to ask a friend

I was a bit flummoxed at this point, but handily a friend suggested that ESXi doesn't care about hardware changes after the fact - so I could stage all this by pre-installing ESXi onto the internal 4 GB USB Drive. Which is exactly what I did, so to do this, I:

  1. Created a VMware Workstation (I know, it's a work machine - I'm normally a VirtualBox man) Virtual Machine called "USB Test" on my Laptop
    1. Allocate this at least 2x vCPUs with 2x Cores
    2. Allocate this at least 4 GB RAM
  2. Followed this guide on How To USB Boot a VM in VMware Workstation 11
  3. Downloaded ESXi 6.5.0 ISO from VMware vSphere Hypervisor (ESXi) 6.5
  4. Inserted the 4 GB USB Drive
  5. Opened Rufus Bootable USB Maker
  6. Flashed VMware-VMvisor-Installer-6.5.0-4564106.x86_64.iso onto my 4 GB USB Drive
  7. Booted my "USB Test" VM, which boots the 4 GB USB Drive
  8. Followed the ESXi installation process and installed ESXi over the 4 GB USB Drive volume
  9. Rebooted the "USB Test" VM, and attached a "Host-only" Network Adapter to it
  10. Waited for ESXi to Boot, and receive a 192.168.85.x Host-only IP Address

Now I've got ESXi built onto the 4 GB USB, I need to tweak a few bits before I plug it into the Cisco WAVE 594. Using the Host-only NIC in VMware Workstation means I can locally navigate to https://192.168.85.x/ui/ on the same Laptop running VMware Workstation to jump onto ESXi vSphere and configure it ("Host-only" means it's a virtual network between just that VM and your Laptop's OS - Windows 7 for me - which sees it as a Virtual NIC).

Making it work without VGA

As well as any other ESXi settings - such as Hostname, vmk0 IP Address, Storage Volumes (although no point doing that until this is plugged into the Cisco WAVE 594 itself) - I'll need to tweak ESXi to output it's boot screen (VMware call this the Direct Console User Interface, or DCUI; I call it the "yellow and black ESXi boot screen", much catchier) somewhere other than VGA, as the WAVE 594 doesn't have a VGA Port.

Doing this is quite easy; what ends up happening is that a VGA-like output (i.e. the VMware DCUI) gets redirected to the Serial port, which in this case is the trusty old blue RJ45 Console port. To do this, follow the instructions on VMware's website Redirect the Direct Console to a Serial Port Using the vSphere Client:

  1. Login to the vSphere HTML Client (i.e. https://192.168.85.x/ui/)

  2. Click the Configuration tab

  3. Click Host, then Advanced Settings

  4. Search for parameter VMkernel.Boot.logPort

    1. Make sure it says default

  5. Search for parameter VMkernel.Boot.gdbPort

    1. Make sure it says default

  6. Search for VMkernel.Boot.tty2Port
    1. Set it to com1
  7. Click OK

Job done, now we can simply insert the USB Drive into the internal USB slot, connect our trusty blue Console Cable and USB Adapter into the Console Port, and set PuTTY or Screen to 115200 Baud rate*, and boot the Cisco WAVE, then wait for the ESXi Boot Messages and DCUI to flow...


* = If you want to see the WAVE BIOS boot messages, you'll have to set it to 9600 baud first, and then change it to 115200 when you get garbage characters on your screen output.

So close, but yet so far

Remember that asterisk note I wrote before, where VMware lie and say they support the Intel 82574L in their HCL? Well, they don't - and to save you time, they:

  • Don't in ESXi 5.5
  • Don't in ESXi 6.0
  • Don't in ESXi 6.5
  • Don't even when you mess around with custom and obsolete net1000e VIB driver packs

Now what, not much use having an ESXi Node with no Physical Networking on it! This is where the second brainwave clicks in; lets use that USB Ethernet Adapter we've got lying around! Luckily Jose Gomes has had exactly the same idea and created a lovely guide on using a USB Ethernet driver for ESXi 6.5 - so follow that. For me, this looked like:

  1. Download the Driver VIB for the Realtek USB Adapter
  2. Enable SSH Service in ESXi vSphere Web UI (the Service is called "tsm-ssh")
  3. Use FileZilla to login as "root", and copy-paste the VIB to /tmp/
  4. Follow VMware KB Article 2147650 to disable the newer USB Drivers
  5. Install the custom Realtek VIB, from SSH this command should do it:
    1. esxcli software vib install -v /tmp/r8152-2.06.0-4_esxi65.vib
  6. Reboot ESXi

Let's see what we get this time then, when we also plug our cheapo USB 3 Ethernet Adapter in to the front USB port (and ESXi 4 GB USB into the internal USB port):


Great Success!

There is a caveat here - I find that, on reboots, ESXi DCUI will uncheck the "Use vmnic32 for Management" box, so it won't be contactable from the Network/won't get a DHCP IP until you manually press F2 -> Login to DCUI -> Re-enable it, which isn't much use if it's remote and the power goes.

Apparently there's a fix for that here in Install ESXi on a server/laptop with only USB Ethernet with an aptly-named file called "weasel", but I've had stoat-all success in getting it to work, so it's a limitation I've just lived with.

As a side note, because we didn't run the interactive installer on ESXi while it was connected to the WAVE 594 Hardware, you'll need to manually use the ESXi Datastore -> Storage -> Adapter -> Delete Partition option to wipe the partitions of data on both the 2x 500 GB SATA Disks, and can then set them both up as "New Datastores", so they can be used to hold VMs as VMDK virtual hard drive files.

Here's a handy guide on How To Erase ESXi Disks With ESXi Host Client v3.

Have fun!

Using Intel vPro AMT ME as a poor man's iLO for KVM

Monday, 21 Jan 2019

Got Intel vPro AMT ME, bruv?

Recently I've been trying and failing to get Nutanix Community Edition (CE) to cluster-up, with one ESXi-nested virtualised AHV/CVM and another physical AHV/CVM, running on an old HP Elite 8200 Small Form Factor Desktop PC. If you've played around with Nutanix, you'll know there's a lot of tinkering with the Host (Acropolis Hypervisor, AHV) Node to install the Controller Virtual Machine (CVM), and a bit of rebootery required; if you've been following this blog long, you'll realise that I'm not favoured with the Technology Gods - and my mileage often varies into many more reboots than the average bear.

When you're working with a frankenmachine (ProTip - Buy a 13-pin male Mini-SATA to 22-pin female SATA Converter to use the proprietary MicroSATA/Power Cable going into the CD Drive for an SSD), which you've put in your upstairs LAN Room, then the frequent trips up and down, and lugging a keyboard, video and mouse can get, well, annoying. Unless, that is, you've got Intel vPro, Active Management Technology (AMT) or Management Engine (ME) onboard your lovely business-class Laptop or PC - and then you can use Intel's AMT VNC Server.

BIOS Time - Setting it up

Note - Most of the first part of this is the same as the How-to Geek article on How to Remotely Control Your PC with some added time-saving, hair-tearing-out tips to follow later.

As with all good things in life (with PC hardware), the fun stuff happens in the BIOS. As per the links above, this is fairly simple:

  1. Take your old school keyboard, video and mouse (or USB Crash Cart KVM Adapter, if Christmas time has just been) and plug them into your vPro/AMT/ME-enabled Desktop or Laptop (well, not Laptop, obviously because it's got a keyb... never mind)
  2. Reboot
  3. Furiously tap Ctrl + P to get into the Intel ME Settings BIOS
  4. When asked for a password, unless you set it, it will be "admin" (without the speech marks)
  5. Enter "ME General Settings", and
    1. Change the password to something more secure (it'll need to be at least one capital letter, one number and one special character)
    2. Setup the Network IP for AMT - think of this the same as an iLO/iDRAC/BMC, you can either "Share" the Host OS's one (but why, as you're tied into that), or set a seperate, dedicated IP for just AMT Keyboard Video Mouse (KVM) access
    3. Hit Enter and OK on "Active Network Access" (or this was all for nought)
    4. Configure the DNS-related Hostname, DNS Server and related settings (maybe something like amt-<PC_Hostname>, so you can distinguish the two in your DNS later on)
  6. Enter "AMT Configuration", and
    1. Enable the "Manageability Feature Selection"
    2. Enable "SOL" (Serial-over-LAN)
    3. Enable "IDER" (ISO/Image Remote Booting)
    4. Enable "Legacy Redirection Mode" (By Legacy they mean "Using something sensible like VNC Viewer, rather than crappy Intel-proprietary KVM Viewers)
    5. Enable "KVM Feature Selection"
    6. Disable "User Opt-in"
      1. If you leave it enabled, the non-existent person in front of the real keyboard/video/mouse that you plugged in will have to type a challenge/response string to allow you in, which defeats the point
    7. Enable "Opt-in configurable from Remote IT"
      1. For when you sit back at your desk, and realise you didn't do the step above
    8. Escape/Escape/Escape/Yes/Save/OK

Now we've setup most of it, what can we do?

Stage 1 - The ME Web GUI

Now you've done all that BIOS work, here comes the first payoff - a lovely Web User Interface you can access via http://<AMT_IP_ADDRESS>:16992, as per example below (my AMT IP is


The kind of information you get to see here includes:

  • System Information
    • Model, BIOS, Firmware etc.
    • undefined
  • Memory Information
    • Type, Number of DIMMs, Size etc.
    • undefined
  • Disk Information
    • Type, Size, Manufacturer etc.
    • undefined
  • Event Logs
    • Last Power, Last Crash, Case Opened etc.
    • undefined

Then there's the juicy ones that you literally don't want (or have) to leave your chair for any more:

  • Remote Power On/Off/Reboot
    • Including "Next Boot" actions (i.e. Boot to USB, Boot to BIOS etc)
    • undefined

Stage 2 - But Ma, where's my KVM?

If you've read this far, you're probably thinking you've been short-changed here; I promised you a KVM and I've delivered you a fancy Web GUI. So here's the fun part; you'll need one of the following to actually enable the VNC-based KVM functionality to work:

  1. (Windows App) MeshCommander
  2. (Windows App) Intel Manageability Commander
  3. (Windows SDK) Download Intel SDK, extract it some place and execute "KVMControlApplication.exe" (hiding away under the "Windows", and then "bin" directories (ProTip - You'll need to install Microsoft dotNET for this, so get a brew break ready), and you can then "Edit Machine Settings", login with "admin" and the <AMT_PASSWORD> you set earlier, and click "Machine Settings", then "Enabled - all ports" - as described in this lovely blog post

Regardless of which you chose, here's a big tip - the "RFB Password" has to be exactly 8 characters, and include at least one each of the following:

  • A capital letter
  • A number
  • A special character (i.e. @,'| etc.)

That tip right there saved you two hours of Googling "Error 400" and "XML invalid", and - my personal favourite - "KVM no respond" errors.

You can also do this from within MeshCommander, you click on the following sections, and then you'll get a prompt to chose the KVM "Enabled - all ports" and "RFB Password" (Intel-speak for "VNC Login Password")


Stage 3 - Look Ma, no hands(-eyes engineer lugging his ass upstairs)!

Once done, you can now use a standard VNC Client* to connect via <AMT_IP_ADDRESS>:5900 the same you would with any other standard VNC Server:

* = On Windows, only RealVNC seemed to work. On Mac OS X, only VNC Viewer seemed to work. On Linux (Debian), only Remmina seemed to work.


You'll then be prompted for the VNC Password (this is the pesky 8-character RFB Password):


And finally given a lovely KVM VNC session into your vPro-enabled PC or Laptop:


Et voila - the poor man's iDRAC/iLO/CIMC/<BMC acronym of choice here> is complete!

Note, if you have a Windows PC and don't want to enable the VNC (TCP/5900) part, then both MeshCommander and Intel Manageability Commander have a built-in, non-VNC KVM Client, which seems to speak some magical SOL/IDER "backdoor" protocol into the AMT chip, so they always work, regardless of you turning on/off the "Legacy ports" settings.